GLOSSARY OF INDUSTRY TERMS
Banding - A method of packaging printed pieces of paper using rubber, plastic, or paper bands.
Basis Weight - Weight in pounds of a ream of paper cut to the basic size for its grade.
Bind - To fasten sheets or signatures with wire, thread, glue, or by other means.
Bindery - Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects.
Blanket - The thick rubber mat on a printing press that transfers ink from the plate to paper.
Bleed - Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming.
Blind Embossing - An image pressed into a sheet without ink or foil.
Blueline - A blue photographic proof used to check position of all image elements.
Board - Alternate term for mechanical.
Bond Paper - Strong durable paper grade used for letterheads and business forms.
Break For Color - Also known as a color break. To separate mechanically or by software the parts to be printed in different colors.
Brightness - The brilliance or reflectance of paper.
Bulk - Thickness of paper stock in thousandths of an inch or number of pages per inch.
Bulk Pack - Boxing printed product without wrapping or banding.
Carbonless - Pressure sensitive writing paper that does not use carbon.
Caliper - Paper thickness in thousandths of an inch.
Cast Coated - Coated paper with a high gloss reflective Finishing.
Coated Paper - Clay coated printing paper with a smooth finish.
Collate - A finishing term for gathering paper in a precise order.
Color Bar - A quality control term regarding the spots of ink color on the tail of a sheet.
Color Separations - The process of preparing artwork, photographs, transparencies, or computer generated art for printing by separating into the four primary printing colors.
Continuous-Tone Copy - Illustrations, photographs or computer files that contain gradient tones from black to white or light to dark.
Contrast - The tonal change in color from light to dark.
Copy - All furnished material or disc used in the production of a printed product.
Cover Paper - A heavy printing paper used to cover books, make presentation folders, etc.
Creep - Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, push out and thrust.
Cromalin - Trade name for DuPont color proofs.
Crop - To cut off parts of a picture or image.
Crop Marks - Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.
Cyan - One of four standard process colors. The blue color.
Density - The degree of color or darkness of an image or photograph.
Die - Metal rule or imaged block used to cut or place an image on paper in the finishing process.
Die Cutting - Curing images in or out of paper.
Digital Proof - Page proofs produced through electronic memory transferred onto paper via laser or ink-jet.
Dot - The components that make up a halftone. Printed pictures are made many dots
Dot Gain - Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain.
Double Burn - Exposing a plate to multiple images.
DPI (Dots Per Inch) - Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors.
Dummy - A rough layout of a printed piece showing position and finished size. Also called mockup.
Duotone - A halftone picture made up of two printed colors.
Emulsion - Light sensitive coating found on printing plates and film.
Finished Size - Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.
Flat Size - Size of product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as compared to finished size.
Flood - To cover a printed page with ink, varnish, or plastic coating.
Flop - The reverse side of an image.
Foil Emboss - Foil stamping and embossing an image on paper with a die.
Foil Stamping - Using a die to place a metallic or pigmented image on paper.
Four-Color-Process - The process of combining the four primary colors to create a printed color picture or colors composed from the basic four colors.
FPO (For Position Only) - Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction.
Fountain - Trough or container, on a printing press, that holds fluids such as ink, varnish or water.
Four-color Process Printing - Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color process printing, full color printing and process printing.
French Fold - Two folds at right angles to each other.
Face - Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine.
Generation - Stages of reproduction from original copy. A first generation reproduction yields the best quality.
Ghosting - A faint printed image that appears on a printed sheet where it was not intended. It is hard to tell when or where ghosting will occur. Sometimes you can see the problem developing immediately after printing the sheet, other times the problem occurs while drying. However the problem occurs it is costly to fix, if it can be fixed. Since it is a function of graphical design, the buyer pays for the increased cost.
Gloss - A shiny look reflecting light.
Grain - The direction in which the paper fibers lie.
Gripper - The metal fingers on a printing press that holds the paper as it passes through the press.
Gutter - In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edges.
Halftone - Converting a continuous tone to dots for printing.
Hickey - Reoccurring unplanned spots that appear in the printed image from dust, lint, dried ink.
High-Bulk Paper - A paper made thicker than its standard basis weight.
Highlight - The lightest areas in a picture or halftone.
Imposition - Positioning printed pages so they will fold in the proper order.
Impression - Putting an image on paper.
Imprint - Adding copy to a previously printed page.
Indicia - Postal information place on a printed product.
Ink Fountain - The reservoir on a printing press that holds the ink.
Ink Jet Printing (Inkjetting) - Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing.
Inserts - Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).
Laminate - To cover with film, or to bond or glue one surface to another.
Leaf - One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a leaf is one page.
Line Copy - High contrast copy not requiring a halftone, usually just text.
Lines Per Inch - The number of rows of dots per inch in a halftone.
Loupe - A magnifying glass used to review a printed image, plate and position film.
Makeready - All activities required to prepare a press or other machine to function for a specific printing or bindery job, as compared to production run. Also called setup.
Margin - Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.
Mask - Blocking light from reaching parts of a printing plate.
Matchprint - Trade name for 3M integral color proof.
Matte Finish - Dull paper or ink finish.
Mechanical - Camera ready art all contained on one board.
Mechanical Separation - Mechanical art overlay for each color to be printed.
Micrometer - Instrument used to measure the thickness of different papers.
Mock Up - A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing instructions or direction.
Offsetting - An intermediate surface used to transfer ink. Also, an unpleasant happening when the images of freshly printed sheets transfer images to each other.
Offset Paper - Term for uncoated book paper.
Ok Sheet - Final approved color-inking sheet before production begins.
Opacity - The amount of show-through on a printed sheet. The more opacity or the thicker the paper the less show-through. (The thicker/heavier the paper the higher the cost.)
Overrun or Overs - Copies printed in excess of the specified quantity. (Printing trade terms allow for + - 10 % to represent a completed order or less depending on the quantity ordered.)
Page Count - Total number of pages that a publication has.
Pagination - In the book arena, the numbering of pages.
Perfect Bind - A type of binding that glues the edge of sheets to a cover like a telephone book, Microsoft software manual, or Country Living Magazine.
Perfecting Press - A sheet fed printing press that prints both sides of a sheet in one pass.
Pica - Unit of measure in typesetting. One pica = 1/6 inch.
Perf Marks - On a "dummy" marking where the perforation is to occur.
Perforating - Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).
Plate - Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.
PMS - The abbreviated name of the Pantone Color Matching System.
Point - For paper, a unit of thickness equaling 1/1000 inch. For typesetting, a unit of height equaling 1/72 inch.
PostScript - The computer language most recognized by printing devices.
Prepress - Camera work, color separations, stripping, platemaking and other prepress functions performed by the printer, separator or a service bureau prior to printing. Also called preparation.
Prepress Proof - Any color proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays, as compared to a press proof printed using ink.
Press Check - Event at which make-ready sheets from the press are examined before authorizing full production to begin.
Press Time - Amount of time that one printing job spends on press, including time required for make-ready.
Pressure-Sensitive Paper - Paper material with self-sticking adhesive covered by a backing sheet.
Printer Spreads - Layout made imposed for printing, as compared to reader spreads.
Process Blue - The blue or cyan color in process printing.
Process Colors - Cyan (blue), magenta (process red), yellow (process yellow), and black (process black).
Proof - Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.
Ream - Five hundred sheets of paper.
Register - To position print in the proper position in relation to the edge of the sheet and to other printing on the same sheet.
Register Marks - Cross-hair lines or marks on film, plates, and paper that guide strippers, platemakers, pressmen, and bindery personnel in processing a print order from start to finish.
Reverse - The opposite of what you see. Printing the background of an image. For example; type your name on a piece of paper. The reverse of this would be a black piece of paper with a white name.
RGB - Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive color primaries.
Scanner - Device used to make color separations, halftones, duo tones and tri tones. Also a device used to scan art, pictures or drawings in desktop publishing.
Score - A crease put on paper to help it fold better.
Screen Angles - Frequently a desktop publisher's nightmare. The angles at which halftone, duo tones, tri tones, and color separation printing films are placed to make them look right.
Self-Cover - Using the same paper as the text for the cover.
Show-Through - Printing on one side of a sheet that can be seen on the other side of the sheet.
Signature - A sheet of printed pages which when folded become a part of a book or publication.
Skid - A pallet used for a pile of cut sheets.
Specifications - A precise description of a print order such as type size, paper grade and quantity, printing or binding method.
Spine - The binding edge of a book or publication.
Spoilage - Planned paper waste for all printing operations.
Spot Varnish - Varnish used to highlight a specific part of the printed sheet.
Spread - Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or production unit.
Stamping - Term for foil stamping.
Stock - The material to be printed.
Stripping - The positioning of film on a flat prior to platemaking.
Substrate - Any surface on which printing is done.
Text Paper - Grades of uncoated paper with textured surfaces.
Tints - A shade of a single color or combined colors.
Transparency - A positive photographic slide on film allowing light to pass through.
Trapping - To print one ink over another or to print a coating, such as varnish, over an ink. The first liquid traps the second liquid.
Trim Marks - Similar to crop or register marks. These marks show where to trim the printed sheet.
Trim Size - The final size of one printed image after the last trim is made.
UV Coating - Liquid laminate bonded and cured with ultraviolet light. Environmentally friendly.
Waste - A term for planned spoilage.
Watermark - A distinctive design created in paper at the time of manufacture that can be easily seen by holding the paper up to a light.
Web Press - Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets after printing. Also called reel-fed press. Web presses come in many sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called 8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).
Wire-O Binding - A method of wire binding books along the binding edge that will allow the book to lay flat using double loops.
With The Grain - Folding or feeding paper into the press or folder parallel to the grain of the paper.
Work And Tumble - Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from the gripper to the tail to print the second side using the same side guide and plate for the second side.
Work and Turn - Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from left to right using the same side guides and plate for the second side